Work in progress

Place Based policies 

What lies beyond the average effect of the European Regional Policy? Evidence from Quantile Regression Discontinuity Design  

(with Bouayad Agha S., Turpin N.) 

The European Regional policy touches all parts of the EU, at all levels from national to regional and local communities, with a focus on the poorest regions. Its average impact on growth and economic performance has long remained controversial. In this paper, we focus on the heterogeneity of regional responses to this policy. We enlarge the policy analysis to a Quantile Regression Discontinuity Design and we find that the European Regional Policy, through the Objective 1 program, does impact the distributions of GDP and employment growth rates, research and development efforts and, to a lower extent, highways density in lagged regions.

Keywords: Quantile treatment effect, Regression discontinuity, European Regional Policy.

JEL codes: R11, C14, C21, R58.

The Political Economy of Mountain Zoning and its impact on Rural Development and Farming Activities 

Does the french Rural Development Program affect spatial segregation? 

(with S. Truchet) 

Did Cohesion policy foster well-being?

The Cohesion Policy Dilemma: Reconciling Spatial Disparities and Economic Growth. Evidence from nightlights. 

Toward local-Specific Solutions:  Causal Machine Learning Analysis of  the French Rural Development Policy's Heterogeneous Impact on Migration and Employment

Labor Market and Education 

Unemployment fluctuations and city size: evidence from the French Air Force base closures

 (with M.Sanch-Maritan

This article explores the relationship between city size and unemployment volatility. We present a new mechanism of risk sharing between firms and workers located in the the same labor market. Our model reveals that economic shocks and local unemployment can be mitigated by the city size. We exploit a quasi-natural experiment by studying the economic impact of 12 French air force base closures to test the prediction of our model. We use synthetic control methods and interactive fixed effects to construct a credible counterfactual for each employment zone which experienced a closure. By analyzing quarterly local unemployment data, we show that air base closures increase local unemployment. Despite that air base closure lead to a rise in local unemployment in quarters following the closure, on average areas absorb negative shock in 14 quarters. Moreover, our results reveal some heterogeneity in the local economy's resilience. In line with our theoretical model, we show that city size is a relevant explanation for the observed heterogeneity in resilience: the unemployment rate is less affected in denser area by a relative equal-sized shift in labor demand.

Do labor market policies have displacement effects? Additional evidences with individual spatial acessibility measures  

In this article, we assess how an active labor market policy affects the potential outcomes of those not assigned to the program. We use a two-stage randomized experiments carry out by the French Ministry of Employment and conducted at the ALE level (administrative zoning). The design of this experiment solve a number of identification issues. However some threats to identification remain. One of the crucial hypotheses of group-randomized trials is the absence of externalities between local labor markets. Regional economies are highly integrated, and it is very likely that unemployment externalities cross administrative borders. Results may be dependent on the shape of the local spatial unit. To tackle this issue, for each unemployed in the program, we build zoning depicting areas of prospecting whose size varies from 15 to 60 minutes. Moreover, the literature does not provide definitive guidance about functional relationship between labor market outcomes and local characteristics. Results may be sensitive to a change of the functional form. We explore this issue by using Generalized Additive Models. Our empirical investigations do not reveal clear evidences of displacement effects in general. However, we find evidences of treatment heterogeneity regarding the local context. Increasing the local level of assignment in prosperous local markets does not cause high displacement effects. At the opposite, for deprived labor markets an increase in the local level of assignment lead to high displacement effects.

How does the Labour Market Size Shape Firm Training Decisions?  Disengleting between poaching and agglomeration economies  

(with Y. Morin)

This paper explores the role of agglomeration externalities on firms training offer. We aim to understand why firms train less in denser areas. Two mechanisms can explain this stylized fact: (i) because of the poaching of trained workers, firms may train less in denser local labour markets, (ii)  matching and learning effects lessen the firm training needs of workers to acquire new skills. To arbitrate between those two explanations, we construct two proxies for poaching effects: firm turnover and turnover in the local labour market. When controlling for poaching with those two measures, we still find employment density to have a negative and significant effect on firm provided training. This implies matching and learning effects are more likely to be responsible for the negative effect of employment density on training than poaching effects.

Spatial frictions in intergenerational mobility

Local Public Economics

How many are fiscal competition equilibria? Evidence from Quantile regression on French municipalities.

(with Quentin Frère and Virginie Piguet)

Agricultural and Environmental Economics

Farm technical efficiency and Agri-environmental scheme adoption 

 (with T.B. Diop, S. Blancard, S. Legras, S. Marchand)

The agricultural detrimental effects on the environment are a source of concerns. Public measures, such as Agri-environmental schemes (AESs), have been designed to incentivize farmers to adopt more sound environmental practices on the farm. In this study, we examine the effects of past initial economic and environmental performances on AESs adoption. Using the Firth’s logistic regression to address small sample bias with French FADN data from 1997 to 2007, we  mainly find that Technical Efficiency have heterogeneous effects on AES adoption, depending on environmental indexes. This result suggest a presence of windfall effects. We also show a trade-off and synergy between economic and environmental performances in adoption decisions, and heterogeneous effect depending on the type of farming (TF).

Keywords: Technical Efficiency, Environmental indexes, Agri-Environmental Schemes, Firth's penalization, Windfall Effects, France. 

Revisiting the environmental impacts of foreign aid : is foreign aid polluting ? Empirical evidence at the sub-national level 

(with S. Marchand, Y. Morin, L. Wagner)

Did green payments’ crop diversity criterion induce change in economic, environmental and land use condition in France?

(with T.B. Diop)

How modern agriculture should be more environmental sensitive? This question has raised extensive debate among scholars. Reducing the negative agricultural footprint on the environment has been vital for policy-makers. The European Union (EU), by means of the 2013 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), have introduced a new component called green payment with the objective to improve environmental performance of European farms. Fierce debates have taken place among scholars about its effects on the environment. This study intends to bring some clarity to the matter by analysing the effect of green payments' crop diversity criterion on farms' economic, environmental and land use conditions. Using a difference in discontinuity design with French FADN data, the results show significant negative significant effect on economic condition. Our study goes a step further by showing that potential better environmental and land use results and no detrimental income effect could have been obtained with better targeting.

Keywords: Green Payments, Crop Diversification, Difference in discontinuity, Windfall Effect, France. 

Do Grassland Conservation Subsidies Influence Farm Efficiency? Evidence from a French Natural Experiment

(with T.B. Diop)

In this study, we investigate the impact of an exogenous source of income support variation related to Less Favored Areas (LFA) and the grassland premium (PHAE) on farms' technical efficiency (TE), environmental efficiency (EE), and grassland share in France. We utilize the 2015 CAP reform, which serves as a natural experiment since it affects three groups of farms differently. We employ a combination of difference-in-differences and inverse propensity score weighting, comparing farms that benefited from an increase in LFA payments ("winners") to farms that did not experience a change ("neutrals"). We also compared farms that suffered from the loss of the grassland premium ("losers") to neutral farms. Our findings suggest that the variation in income support has led to a reduction in both TE and EE of farms, as well as a decrease in grassland share, with the latter being statistically insignificant for both "winners" and "losers".

Keywords: Less Favored Area, Grassland Premium, Technical Efficiency, Environmental Efficiency, France.  

JEL Codes: Q12, Q15, Q18, Q57, C31.

Does Ecological agriculture foster returns to education? Using the raising of the school leaving age as a natural experiment.

(with S. Henderson, S. Davidova and A. Bailey)

Are pesticide reduction agri-environmental schemes decrease the risk of pesticide use? 

(with S. Legras)

Does tax reduce pesticide consumption? Evidence using Synthetic DID